A survey has suggested political views and gender were factors in Calgary residents voting against bidding for the 2026 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.
The bid from the 1988 Winter Olympic hosts collapsed in November following a plebiscite defeat in the Canadian city.
Fifty-six per cent of Calgarians voted against bidding for the Games, leading to the City Council withdrawing from the process.
The decision has left Milan and Cortina D'Ampezzo in Italy and Sweden's capital Stockholm as the two remaining bidders for the Games.
A survey carried out by the University of Calgary's School of Public Policy and the Canadian Municipal Election Survey took place between November 14 and December 13 to assess who supported and opposed bidding for the Games.
The survey's author Jack Lucas said three factors were focused upon which could have impacted on a voter's decision, with demographics including age, gender and income.
Political support, including whether they backed Mayor Naheed Nenshi in the 2017 election, was also considered.
Nenshi was in favour of proceeding in the bid process.
Lucas added that the final factors considered were "attitudes", with those supporting spending cuts across a range of municipal services considered as "fiscal conversatism".
Strongly identifying as Calgarian was placed under "civic pride".
"Some of the demographic variables, such as gender, along with most of the partisan and political variables, are statistically significant," the report says.
"All else equal, women were less likely than men to support the bid, and New Democratic Party and 'other' (Liberal, Alberta Party) partisans were more likely to support the bid than United Conservative Party partisans and non-partisans.
"Nenshi voters were also much more likely to support the bid than those who did not vote for Nenshi.
"Calgarians' demographic backgrounds and political affiliations were clearly related to their plebiscite vote.
"The most striking factors, however, are the attitudes.
"Those who strongly identify as Calgarians were substantially more likely to support the Olympic bid.
"Strong fiscal conservatives, on the other hand - those who felt the city should be spending less money on a wide variety of city services - were powerfully inclined to vote against the bid.
"For these fiscal conservatives - of whom there were many - the Olympics carried a price tag that was simply not worth paying."
More than 304,000 votes were cast in the plebiscite, which was officially non-binding.
However, it would have been impossible for the bid to continue without public backing.
The survey could be the latest data used by International Olympic Committee officials who are seeking to end a run of referendum defeats.
Calgary became the ninth straight Olympic bid city to lose a public vote, with the last success coming in Oslo in 2012.
However, the Norwegian capital's bid eventually collapsed anyway.
One of the major concerns raised by voters in Calgary was costs as well as the supposed lack of transparency from the Bid Committee in revealing key details.
The bid had proceeded to the plebiscite after it narrowly survived a City Council vote, despite a recommendation from the city's Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games Assessment Committee to end it.
The recommendation was made following the lack of a funding agreement between the city and the Federal and Provincial Governments, but an 11th-hour deal was then struck.
Councillors still voted 8-7 in favour of approving the recommendation but this fell short of the 10 votes required for the motion to pass.
The report can be accessed here.