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American Eddie Eagan is the only person to win a gold medal at both the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in different events. The Harvard and Oxford University law graduate won a gold medal in light-heavyweight boxing at Antwerp in 1920 and then, 12 years later, was a member of the United States four-man bobsleigh team that won at Lake Placid. Later, the Denver-born Eagan became a lawyer, and served in the army as a colonel during the Second World War.
Canadian ice hockey legend Syl Apps, winner of three Stanley Cup titles at the Toronto Maple Leafs, was also a world-class pole vaulter. He won the gold medal in the event at the 1934 British Empire Games in London and finished sixth at the 1936 Olympics in Berlin. An outstanding all-round sportsman, Apps also captained the McMaster University football team to an inter-collegiate title in 1936. Apps was a Conservative member of the Ontario Parliament between 1963 and 1974 and served in the Cabinet as Minister of Corrections.
Edwin Flack was Australia's only representative at Athens 1896 Olympics but managed to finish eighth in the overall medals table on his own. Flack, an accountant for Price, Waterhouse & Co in New York City, first won the 1500 metres and then claimed victory in the 800m. He also took part in the tennis doubles with British friend George S. Robertson, although they lost their only match in the semi-finals. He might have won a third gold medal as he was leading the marathon with less than two miles to go but collapsed. He was so delirious that, when a Greek spectator tried to help him, Flack punched him.
There have been four deaths at the Winter Olympics. The first was Britain's Kazimierz Kay-Skrzypeski, who died during a training run for the luge at Innsbruck in 1964. Three days later Australian downhill skier Ross Milne also died when he struck a tree during a practice run. The next death did not occur until Albertville 1992 when Nicolas Bochatay, competing in speed skiing, a demonstration event at the Games, collided with a snow grooming vehicle. Georgia's luger Nodar Kumaritashvili was the last person to be killed when, during a training run on the morning of the Vancouver 2010 Opening Ceremony, he crashed and died.
St. Moritz was chosen to host the 1948 Winter Olympics ahead of Lake Placid in the United States because it was in Switzerland, who had remained neutral during World War Two. As St Moritz had already staged the Games in 1928 the International Olympic Committee also believed that it would make the organisation simpler and more economical. But, despite the existence of many of the venues, it was still a difficult task to organise the Games in less than 18 months, including the building of several new railway stations. Switzerland has not hosted the Olympics since, despite bidding four times.
Greece's Dimitrios Loundras is the youngest known Olympic medallist. He was 10 years 218 days old when he was part of the Ethnikos Gymnastikos Syllogos team that won a bronze medal in the team parallel bars at Athens in 1896, although only three teams took part in the competition. Loundras subsequently served in both World Wars and reached the rank of admiral in the Greek navy. He was the last surviving participant from those Games, which marked the revival of the Olympic Movement, eventually dying in 1971 at the age of 85.
Readers of Yugoslav newspapers were asked to pick the mascot for the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo from a list of six finalists. The winner was Vučko, a wolf designed by Slovenian illustrator Jože Trobec. The other finalists were a chipmunk, a lamb, a mountain goat, a porcupine, and a snowball. According to Trobec, the little bad wolf made cute symbolised the human desire "to be friend with animals and become closer to nature". Vučko signalled his excitement with a "Sarajevoooo" howl and still enjoys huge popularity among Sarajevans.
Underwater swimming featured in the 1900 Olympics in Paris but was quickly dropped because of the lack of spectator appeal. A total of 14 swimmers from four countries took part in the event, held in the River Seine, and the result was decided by one point for each second and two points for each metre swum underwater being awarded. The winner was France's Charles de Vendeville ahead of compatriot André Six and Denmark's Peder Lykkeberg. De Vendeville was killed in 1914 at the start of World War One.
Many countries may have boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow following the Soviet Union invasion of Afghanistan but the Games were still a major success. A total of 36 world records, 39 European records and 74 Olympic records were broken. Meanwhile, more than five million people attended the 203 events in 21 sports, 1.5 million more than had watched the previous Olympics at Montreal four years earlier.
North Korea's Dan Shin-Geum, the first woman to run the 800 metres in under two minutes, was banned from Tokyo 1964 by the International Olympic Committee, along with other athletes who had competed in the Games of the New Emerging Forces in Jakarta, an event organised by Indonesia. But the IOC were unhappy the event had included athletes from China and North Vietnam, who did not have recognised National Olympic Committees, and banned everyone who had competed. Indonesia and North Korea retaliated by boycotting the first Olympics ever to be held in Asia.
The first Olympics which featured a 400 metres track was at Amsterdam in 1928, a distance that would become standard for tracks in the future. The winner of the one-lap race at those Games was American Ray Barbuti in a time of 47.8sec. He was also part of the United States 4x400m relay team that won the gold medals.
Frank Kugler won four Olympics medals in freestyle wrestling, weightlifting and tug of war at St Louis in 1904, making him the only competitor to win a medal in three different sports at the same Games. He claimed a silver medal in the heavyweight category in wrestling, bronze in the two hand lift and all-around dumbbell events in weightlifting and another bronze in the tug of war competition as a member of Southwest Turnverein of Saint Louis No. 2 team. He is recognised as an American by the International Olympic Committee although he was a German national at the time of the Games.
Exclusive rights to film the 1924 Olympics in Paris went to Rapid-Film of France which led to an American threat to withdraw from the Games when they were told they could not make their own film of their rugby matches. After negotiations the Americans were allowed to film for educational and archive purposes, which was just as well because the United States team won the final, retaining the title they had won in Antwerp four years earlier, beating France 17-3. Rare vintage footage of the match was later included in the rugby documentary, A Giant Awakens: the Rise of American Rugby.
Britain's curlers won the gold medal at the very first Winter Olympics, in Chamonix in 1924 - but it was not until 82 years later the fact was officially acknowledged by the International Olympic Committee. It was only in February 2006 they ruled that the medals were part of the official Olympic programme in 1924, and not a demonstration event as many sources had previously claimed. It was culmination of a campaign begun by the Glasgow-based newspaper The Herald, on behalf of the families of the eight Scots who won the first curling gold medals.
Morocco's Nawal El Moutawakel was the first Arab Muslim woman to claim an Olympic gold medal when she won the women's 400 metres hurdles at Los Angeles in 1984. El Moutawakel's victory was a major surprise and King Hassan II of Morocco telephoned her to give his congratulations, and he declared that all girls born the day of her victory were to be named in her honour. El Moutawakel is now a leading sports administrator with the International Olympic Committee and the International Association of Athletics Federations.
Denver were awarded the 1976 Winter Olympic Games ahead of Sion in Switzerland, Tempere in Finland and Vancouver in Canada at the International Olympic Committee Session in 1970. But in a Colorado referendum in November 1972, voters rejected funding for the event. It is the only time a city has been awarded the Olympics but pulled out. The IOC then offered the Games to Whistler in Canada, but they too declined owing to a change of Government following elections. Salt Lake City offered to host the Games, but the IOC, still reeling from the Denver rejection, declined and selected Innsbruck, the 1964 host city, as a replacement.
Formed in 1921, the Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) is the governing body for all international events in Jumping, Dressage and Para Dressage, Eventing, Driving and Para Driving, Endurance, Vaulting and Reining. It establishes the regulations and approves equestrian programmes for Championships, Continental and Regional Games as well as the Olympic & Paralympic Games. The FEI is looking for a Sports Content & Social Media Manager with 100% rate of activity for its Digital and Content Department. The position is based in Lausanne and is available immediately.
Brisbane, a thriving state capital with an "irresistible" candidacy is set to be formally awarded the 2032 Olympics at this week's IOC Session. Philip Barker profiles the city due to be confirmed as hosts, and also looks at the changing nature of the host city selection process.