American bobsled hero killed in the Battle of Britain

At the 1928 Winter Olympics in St Moritz, as driver of the first five-man team, 16-year-old Billy Fiske became the youngest gold medallist in any winter sport, a record not eclipsed until 1992 by ski jumper Toni Nieminen. Fiske competed again at the 1932 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, where he carried the United States flag at the Opening Ceremony, and took another gold in the four-man event. Fiske was invited, but declined to lead the bobsled team in the 1936 Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen in Germany. It is believed by some that this decision was due to his disagreeing with the politics in Germany at the time, which may also explain his later decision to be one of the first Americans to actively participate in the Second World War. He travelled to the United Kingdom and joined the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, claiming Canadian citizenship in order to be permitted to enlist. He participated as a pilot in the Battle of Britain until he was killed in action in August 1940. He was aged just 29.

Norway have been the number Winter Olympic nation since the start

Norway has competed in every Winter Olympics since the first one at Chamonix in 1924. Their team of 14 athletes won 17 medals, including four gold, to finish top - a position they have not relinquished in the near 100 years since. Before the start of Beijing 2022, they had won a total of 368 medals, including 132 gold, leaving them a long way clear of nearest rivals United States. More than half of these medals have come from cross-country skiing and speed skating. Norway is one of only three nations - along with Austria and Liechtenstein - to have won more medals at the Winter Games than at the Summer edition.

Short track speed skating made its Olympic debut at Albertville 1992

Short track speed skating was introduced as a demonstration sport at the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary. It was upgraded to a full Olympic sport at Albertville 1992 and has been part of the Winter Olympics ever since. There were only four short track events in 1992, but the programme was expanded to include six events at Lillehammer 1994 and Nagano 1998, and finally eight events at Salt Lake City 2002. The events are the same for both men and women: 500 metres, 1000m, 1500m, plus the relay event - 5000m for men, 3000m for women. A 2000m mixed team relay was added, and made its debut at Beijing 2022, with host nation China claiming the gold medal.

King of the Nordic events at the first Winter Olympics at Chamonix 1924

At the first Winter Olympic Games in Chamonix in 1924, Norway’s Thorleif Haug won all three Nordic skiing events - the 18 and 50 kilometres cross-country and the Nordic combined. He was also awarded the bronze medal in ski jumping. But 50 years later a mistake was found in the calculation of the scores by Norwegian sports historian Jacob Vaage and Haug was demoted to fourth place. It meant Anders Haugen, an American born in Norway, was promoted to third place. In September 1974, Haugen returned to Norway as an 86-year-old and was given the bronze medal by Anna Maria Magnussen, Haug's youngest daughter.