Arshad Nadeem earned a historic Commonwealth Game gold for Pakistan in the men's javelin ©Getty Images

Arshad Nadeem earned dramatic and historic gold for Pakistan on the final day of athletics at the Birmingham 2022 Commonwealth Games as he won the men’s javelin with a fifth-round Games record and personal best of 90.18 metres.

That came in response to the effort of 88.84m with which Grenada's double world champion Anderson Peters had overtaken his leading mark of 88.00m in the previous throw.

Peters could not raise the game again with his final effort, a respectable 85.50m, which meant the Pakistan thrower was confirmed as champion.

Nadeem's was only the third athletics gold for Pakistan at the Games.

The last one was for the 120 yards hurdles at the 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games in Perth.

And before that, in the hammer throw at the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games in Vancouver.

Kenya's Glasgow 2014 champion and Rio 2016 silver medallist Julius Yego took bronze on 85.70m.

Laura Muir followed Eilish McColgan in contributing another resounding women's track gold to Scotland's collection at these Commonwealth Games as she won the women's 1500 metres final in 4min 2.75sec after going for broke shortly before the bell in a drive for home that nobody else on the track had the faintest hope of disrupting.

So Muir now has Commonwealth gold to add to her European gold, Olympic silver and world bronze.

Northern Ireland's Ciara Mageean was her closest pursuer, taking silver in 4:04.14, with bronze going to Australia's Abbey Caldwell in 4:04.79.

Scotland's Laura Muir was not to be denied gold in the women's 1500m final ©Getty Images
Scotland's Laura Muir was not to be denied gold in the women's 1500m final ©Getty Images

It was joy deferred for Muir, who missed Glasgow 2014 with injury and was too busy with her veterinary studies to compete on the Gold Coast four years ago.

As the field arrived at the line with three laps to go, Muir was conspicuously at the back, keeping out of trouble.

With two laps to go, she moved up to share the lead with Mageean and Lindon Hall of Australia.

But as the bell sounded Muir was at full pelt, stringing out the field, with only Mageean in contact.

Nothing was going to stop her getting gold tonight.

Kenya's world silver medallist Beatrice Chebet won the women's 5,000m title in 14:38.21, chased home by Scotland's winner of the women's 10,000m, McColgan, whose delight with an additional silver was clear at the end of a race she had led virtually from the gun until the final 300m.

Kenya's Selah Businieni took bronze in 14:48.24.

As the trio headed for the bell the Kenyans moved ahead of the long-time leader, with McColgan now on their tail.

Around the final bend Chebet went, uncatchable, but McColgan, ponytail flying, legs and elbows working, overtook Busieni to move into silver and chase the winner down the straight, flailing her arms in the air to show her satisfaction as she crossed the line.

What a Games it has been for the Scot, who will be her nation's flagbearer here in tomorrow's Closing Ceremony.

Nigeria's women's world long jump silver medallist Ese Brume won Commonwealth gold, just as she did in Glasgow 2014, setting a Games record of 6.99 metres within a superior sequence of marks before upping it to 7.00m with her last effort.

Australia's Gold Coast 2018 silver medallist Brooke Buschkuehl, née Stratton, who finished with a foul, took silver again with 6.95m.

Ghana's Deborah Acquah earned bronze with a personal best of 6.94m.

Kenya’s Wycliffe Kinyamal successfully defended his men’s 800 metres title after making a long run for home that began soon after the bell, coming home in 1:47.52 in a race that began very cagily.

The Kenyan was followed home by Australia's Peter Bol, who took silver in 1:47.66, with bronze going to England’s Ben Pattison in 1:48.25 ahead of compatriot Jamie Webb, who clocked 1:48.60.

As the lanes broke it was Kenya’s Kinyamal who went to the front, although the pace was not searing and the pack remained together at the bell.

Bol was at the Kenyan’s shoulder, and he pushed on the back straight only for Kinyamal to respond and arrive in the final straight with a big lead.

The joy of England's women's 4x400m relay team was quashed along with their gold-medal winning performance after the jury of appeal maintained they had made a lane violation ©Getty Images
The joy of England's women's 4x400m relay team was quashed along with their gold-medal winning performance after the jury of appeal maintained they had made a lane violation ©Getty Images

But Bol pushed all the way, gaining, without quite catching.

The athletics programme appeared to have ended with a spectacular and popular victory, by one-thousandth of a second, for England in the women's 4x400m as 400m hurdler Jessie Knight refused to give up the lead she had inherited from third-leg runner Ama Pipi under intense pressure Canada and Jamaica.

Knight, whose Tokyo 2020 Olympics ended in cruelly premature fashion as she crashed into the opening hurdle in her heat, had a lead of around 10m on the last leg but it seemed as if she would be overtaken at the top of the finishing straight. 

And all the way down the straight, right to the line.

But she just would not give over, and her superb determination secured a gold that was only confirmed after a tense wait - and then disqualified for a lane infringement, with an appeal turned down.

England, who had three of the four first home in the individual final, had crossed the line in 3:25.83, with Canada finishing second on 3:25.84 and Jamaica third in 3:26.93.

Using individual silver medallist Victoria Ohuruogu's strength and power on the opening leg, passing to bronze medallist Williams, England hoped to reach the front as the lanes broke - and they did, but Jamaica came past them.

Trinidad and Tobago won a hectic men's 4x400m final ©Getty Images
Trinidad and Tobago won a hectic men's 4x400m final ©Getty Images

Williams kept second place for the next handover, and in the back straight England were back in the lead as Pipi came through to hand over first to Knight, who seemed about to write a happier story to recount to her children when she returned to her work as a primary school teacher.

Not to be.

Scotland benefited from the empty place on the podium, taking bronze.

Trinidad and Tobago won the final men's track race, the 4x400m final, after a crazy last leg which they began having narrowly lost a lead they had held since the break in lanes as Botswana's third leg runner came through.

That lead was regained, lost and regained in the space of the next 400m before the baton was brought home in 3:01.29, with Botswana taking silver in 3:01.85 and Kenya earning bronze in 3:02.41.

Following the disqualification of England’s 4x400m women winners, the medal standings in the athletics and Para athletics remain - nearly - the same.

Australia finished top of the Birmingham 2022 medals table with 10 golds in a total of 24, from England, who had seven golds from 35, Jamaica, with seven from 13 and Kenya, with six golds from 20,